Cheap hydrogen fuel from seawater may be a step closer

first_imgReaction of [(PY5Me2)MoI]2+ with water to form [(PY5Me2)MoO]2+ and release H2 and half an equivalent of I2. The release of hydrogen was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Image credit: Nature, doi:10.1038/nature08969. (PhysOrg.com) — A new catalyst has been developed to generate hydrogen from water cheaply, but the research was originally intended to make molecules that behaved like magnets. Hydrogen is a clean power source currently produced from natural gas, with carbon dioxide as a by-product. Producing hydrogen from water produces oxygen as a by-product instead. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: A molecular molybdenum-oxo catalyst for generating hydrogen from water, Nature 464, 1329-1333 (29 April 2010), doi:10.1038/nature08969 Explore further Citation: Cheap hydrogen fuel from seawater may be a step closer (2010, April 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-cheap-hydrogen-fuel-seawater-closer.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Conventional catalysts capable of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen are generally too expensive or too weak to work on water effectively enough to produce hydrogen for an inexpensive fuel, but new research has developed a molybdenum catalyst that is robust and cheap enough to do the job, but still requires too much energy to be immediately useful. It does open up new possibilities for scientists to follow in the search for the perfect water-splitting catalyst.One conventional means of splitting water into H2 and O2 is to use a platinum catalyst but the metal is far too expensive for the process to be commercially viable. Other methods use microbial enzymes called hydrogenases containing proteins using nickel and iron, but these methods are either too bulky, slow, or too inefficient to be successful on a commercial basis.The new study by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, aimed at combining metal atoms with organic molecular groups (called PY5) to produce molecules with the properties of bulk magnets. The researchers, led by Jeffrey Long, found that one of their molecules, a molybdenum-oxo complex, was capable of transferring electrons. This is a major requirement of water-splitting systems, so they tested its ability to split water to generate hydrogen gas and found it was highly successful.The molybdenum compound was so successful it could work on seawater or pure water without additives. The compound is stable due to five bonds holding the molybdenum in place. Long said the molecule is stable for long periods in aqueous solutions, and they saw no degradation in catalytic activity over their three-day experiment. The molecule remains stable even when impurities, such as those found in seawater, are present. This would further reduce the cost since no organic acids or solvents are needed.The compound’s stability makes it more durable than the nickel and iron compounds used previously, but it is slower than the natural hydrogenases and needs a higher electric voltage to operate. The group is now experimenting with different metals and “tweaking” the PY5 groups to see if they can improve the speed and efficiency and reduce the energy requirements. They are also looking at the possibility of coupling the system to solar-generated electricity to make it even more viable. Efficient Catalysts for Making Oxygen for ‘Artificial Photosynthesis’last_img read more

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Linux camp has key to Windows 8 boot lockout

first_img(Phys.org)—Microsoft’s rocky reputation with the open source community was not exactly obliterated with hardware news surrounding the upcoming launch of the operating system, Windows 8. Systems will come with Secure Boot enabled in the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI). Only operating systems with an appropriate digital signature will be able to boot. The worry was that only Windows 8 will run on these systems. Users would find it hard to boot non-Microsoft operating systems. UEFI stands for Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI)and it defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware. PC BIOS soon to be replaced by UEFI Numerous PCs designed for the mass market will be labeled with Windows 8 and that in turn set many users to think these are tough times for Linux users to boot their favorite Linux flavors. Some see this as a way for Microsoft simply to ensure security over its machines while others see it as a way for Microsoft to push Linux distributions to the back of the line.Systems with the Designed for Windows 8 that include the Secure Boot can stop unsigned code such as malware from running during the boot process. Any operating system will also be prevented to run if it doesn’t have the approved bootloader.Open source advocates recognize that UEFI has its security merits. Earlier this year, Olaf Kirch, director of the SUSE Linux Enterprise department in SUSE Engineering, called UEFI Secure Boot a useful technology, as it makes life more difficult for attackers to hide a rootkit in the boot chain. At the same time, he said, the basics of its operation, establishing a single root of trust, “conflict with the principles of Open Source development, which must be independent and distributed to work.”Outside Microsoft, big name vendors have been responding with workarounds. Leading Linux names, Canonical, Red Hat, and SUSE have been working on ways that allow their distributions to boot on Windows 8-certified hardware.The Linux Foundation, meanwhile, has come up with a plan to bypass the problem presented by Secure Boot to enable users of open source operating systems to continue to boot on hardware certified for Windows 8. The foundation has announced it will obtain a key from Microsoft and sign a small pre-bootloader. This will allow the booting of any operating system. In a guest post from James Bottomley, Linux Foundation Technical Advisory Board, talked about the Windows 8 move. “In a nutshell, the Linux Foundation will obtain a Microsoft Key and sign a small pre-bootloader which will, in turn, chain load (without any form of signature check) a predesignated boot loader which will, in turn, boot Linux (or any other operating system).”This will be a general purpose solution, not just for Linux. The key would not directly enable booting but instead would transfer control to another bootloader to boot an operating system. As such, the workaround is called the”pre-bootloader.” The pre-bootloader goes past the Secure Boot process. A boot-loader such as GRUB2 takes over and handles the OS booting.According to the Foundation, all the work is left to the real bootloader which “must be installed on the same partition as the pre-bootloader with the known path loader.efi (although the binary may be any bootloader including Grub2).” Once the pre-bootloader is run, the user can boot any OS without having to worry about Secure Boot lockouts. As for a risk that it will turn out to be a vector for malware, the pre-bootloader can be used to boot a CD/DVD installer or LiveCD distribution or even boot an installed operating system in secure mode for any distribution. The pre-bootloader will involve a “present user test.” Someone must be present at boot time to confirm the user wants a particular OS to run. After the pre-bootloader carries out its work, it will wait for a prompt for a user before continuing The user test removes the fear that it can be used to carry malware. More information: www.linuxfoundation.org/news-m … t-system-open-source Explore furthercenter_img Citation: Linux camp has key to Windows 8 boot lockout (2012, October 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-linux-key-windows-boot-lockout.html © 2012 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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GoPro camera rig creates awesomedude effects

first_img(Phys.org) —What happens when you construct an array of GoPro cameras is the question that is answered in a YouTube posting that is hard to see just once. Permagrin Films’ Marc Donahue used 15 GoPro cameras to shoot a video that was posted on YouTube, where one can see him testing out the results of his arc-shaped rig in varied scenes of creatives’ everyday good lives, cycling, drumming, jumping on the grass, transforming movements into acrobatic stunts. The effects are visually interesting, in the way he manages a mix of slow motion, “bullet time” moves, and free-frame effects. © 2013 Phys.org A CBS News comment on the film expressed surprise that more filmmakers were not following Donahue in using “a gazillion GoPro cameras” for moment-capture with special effects. In his wisdom, he also added, “I suppose there would end up being some poor editor who would to go through and edit a gazillion hours of footage.”Actually, after another trial of the camera array technique, this time with a drummer as the subject, he had been asked by an interviewer how he managed to pull off the post-production editing. He said the difficult part was trying to match cameras both in exposure and in color correction. In the end, he said, he organized everything down to a split second. He used multiple sequences per take, and stacked a final build sequence. “It took a day to convert the footage, which was 750 gigs of data. I was done with the edit in three days. It was a lot of work, over 12 hours a day.” His Permagrin Films is most known as the creation of the Dream Music series. Among the company’s technical specialties is motion-control timelapse. GoPro, which supplied the cameras for the array, is a camera company that defines itself as an activity image-capture company. Its Hero lineup of cameras has fueled company growth. The company sells wearable and gear-mountable cameras and accessories for image capture in high definition. The rig of cameras managed to create numerous effects in transitions that were smooth. Donahue said he looked forward to creating an even smoother look with future attempts, and that he planned to release a music video using more of the array technique. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: www.youtube.com/user/DonahueMarc?feature=watchgopro.com/ UrtheCast to show live HD video of Earth from space (w/ video) Citation: GoPro camera rig creates awesome-dude effects (2013, March 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-gopro-camera-rig-awesome-dude-effects.html Explore furtherlast_img read more

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Researchers sequence genome of mysterious candidate phylum TM6 bacteria

first_img(Phys.org) —Researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute have succeeded in sequencing the genome of a mysterious type of bacteria known only by its status—candidate phylum TM6. The sample sequenced, the team reports in their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was found in a sink drain in a hospital. Study finds evidence of bacteria spread throughout the global ocean © 2013 Phys.org Citation: Researchers sequence genome of mysterious candidate phylum TM6 bacteria (2013, June 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-06-sequence-genome-mysterious-candidate-phylum.html Summary of genera found in the biofilm sample from single and multievent sorts. Credit: (c)2013 PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1219809110 Explore furthercenter_img Scientists know that there are a lot of bacteria in the world that have yet to be discovered. Sometimes all they show are evidence of where they’ve been, leading some to call them the “dark matter” of life. One of these, currently dubbed candidate phylum TM6 (first discovered in 1996) is suspecting of living in treated water systems all around the world—since they can’t be grown in a lab, scientists don’t know if they are harmful, helpful or neither. They tend to leave behind evidence of their existence in drains and showerheads, so that’s where the researchers looked after setting up a means of examining them.They found their sample in the form of a biofilm in a sink drain in a public restroom in a hospital. It was of course one of many bacteria in the sample which meant it had to be separated from the others first using fluorescent tagging. The resulting clean sample held single cells clinging together which the researchers pulled apart allowing them to extract individual DNA. The DNA from the bacteria was then compared with DNA from other known bacteria—that helped to rule out the possibility that it was something else, and also in sequencing its genome.After much effort, the team was able to piece together roughly 90 percent of the bacteria’s genome. In so doing they found that the bacteria is not capable of making its own amino acids, which means it likely needs a host to survive. The team theorizes that the bacteria likely live on an amoeba of some sort, or possibly even another kind of bacteria. They still don’t know if TM6 cause problems for us humans however, but suggest the possibility exists—they might be harmful in ways that have not yet been discovered, as other bacteria that use an amoeba as a host have been found to be harmful.The researchers are hopeful that now that the genome of candidate phylum TM6 has been sequenced, the chances of culturing samples in a lab are much greater. That development would of course lead to a much better understanding of the bacteria and hopefully to learning whether it’s something we should be worried about or not. More information: Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum, PNAS, Published online before print June 10, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1219809110AbstractThe “dark matter of life” describes microbes and even entire divisions of bacterial phyla that have evaded cultivation and have yet to be sequenced. We present a genome from the globally distributed but elusive candidate phylum TM6 and uncover its metabolic potential. TM6 was detected in a biofilm from a sink drain within a hospital restroom by analyzing cells using a highly automated single-cell genomics platform. We developed an approach for increasing throughput and effectively improving the likelihood of sampling rare events based on forming small random pools of single-flow–sorted cells, amplifying their DNA by multiple displacement amplification and sequencing all cells in the pool, creating a “mini-metagenome.” A recently developed single-cell assembler, SPAdes, in combination with contig binning methods, allowed the reconstruction of genomes from these mini-metagenomes. A total of 1.07 Mb was recovered in seven contigs for this member of TM6 (JCVI TM6SC1), estimated to represent 90% of its genome. High nucleotide identity between a total of three TM6 genome drafts generated from pools that were independently captured, amplified, and assembled provided strong confirmation of a correct genomic sequence. TM6 is likely a Gram-negative organism and possibly a symbiont of an unknown host (nonfree living) in part based on its small genome, low-GC content, and lack of biosynthesis pathways for most amino acids and vitamins. Phylogenomic analysis of conserved single-copy genes confirms that TM6SC1 is a deeply branching phylum. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Best of Last Week–Littlest quark found cause of Earths first extinction and

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In other news, a team of researchers from Canada and the U.S. found evidence that shows Earth’s first mass extinction was caused by critters, not catastrophe—microorganisms with a photosynthetic process evolved, the team found, producing oxygen that was toxic to predecessors. And a team of researchers from Canada and Germany reported making graphene superconductive by it doping with lithium atoms—showing that a model developed three years ago appears to be right. And a team with the Francis Crick Institute found that aspirin could hold the key to supercharged cancer immunotherapy. And speaking of cancer, another combined team of researchers from São Paulo State University in Brazil and the University of Leeds in the U.K. found that Brazilian wasp venom kills cancer cells by opening them up. A large team of international researchers has conducted a study revealing that the human body has gone through four stages of evolution—based on bones 430,000 years old found in Spain.And finally, if you are one of a group of people that never seems to get enough sleep, you may have another problem as well, as a team of researchers has connected sleep loss to higher rates of illness—they found that short sleepers are four times more likely to catch a cold. Which, put another way, could mean that making sure to get enough sleep could mean fewer colds. Citation: Best of Last Week–Littlest quark found, cause of Earth’s first extinction and short sleepers more likely to catch colds (2015, September 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-09-weeklittlest-quark-earth-extinction-short.html ‘Littlest’ quark-gluon plasma revealed by physicists using Large Hadron Collider (Phys.org)—It was another good week for physics as the “littlest” quark-gluon plasma was revealed by physicists using the Large Hadron Collider—the team from the University of Kansas discovered the material believed to have existed when the universe was born, using fewer particles than was thought to be needed. Another team of researchers from China and the U.S. set an efficiency record demonstrating a quantum computer that “computes without running”—the new generalized CFC was demonstrated to have an efficiency of 85 percent. And a pair of researchers, Raphael Bousso and Netta Engelhardt, proposed a new law that implies thermodynamic time runs backwards inside black holes. Also, a team of researchers from several research institutions in the U.S. has produced the first global antineutrino emission map that highlights the Earth’s energy budget –they believe it will help scientists monitor new and existing man-made sources of radiation.center_img (a) The pulse sequences for the generalized CFC scheme keep the system in its ‘off’ state. (b) Populations of different states as a function of the number of repetitions of pulse sequences. (c) The green curve shows the simulated efficiency (reaching 85%) with practical imperfections, while the dotted curve shows the ideal efficiency (reaching 100%). The dashed line shows the 50% limit. Credit: Kong, et al. ©2015 American Physical Society Explore further © 2015 Phys.orglast_img read more

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Mapping system shows dramatic changes in surface water over past 32 years

first_imgMap of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. The map shows the Paraná River in North-Eastern Argentina and shows how rivers meander and move, floodplains flood intermittently and new areas of permanent and seasonal water are being created and lost through time. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 More information: Jean-François Pekel et al. High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature20584AbstractThe location and persistence of surface water (inland and coastal) is both affected by climate and human activity and affects climate, biological diversity4 and human wellbeing. Global data sets documenting surface water location and seasonality have been produced from inventories and national descriptions, statistical extrapolation of regional data and satellite imagery, but measuring long-term changes at high resolution remains a challenge. Here, using three million Landsat satellite images, we quantify changes in global surface water over the past 32 years at 30-metre resolution. We record the months and years when water was present, where occurrence changed and what form changes took in terms of seasonality and persistence. Between 1984 and 2015 permanent surface water has disappeared from an area of almost 90,000 square kilometres, roughly equivalent to that of Lake Superior, though new permanent bodies of surface water covering 184,000 square kilometres have formed elsewhere. All continental regions show a net increase in permanent water, except Oceania, which has a fractional (one per cent) net loss. Much of the increase is from reservoir filling, although climate change is also implicated. Loss is more geographically concentrated than gain. Over 70 per cent of global net permanent water loss occurred in the Middle East and Central Asia, linked to drought and human actions including river diversion or damming and unregulated withdrawal. Losses in Australia and the USA linked to long-term droughts are also evident. This globally consistent, validated data set shows that impacts of climate change and climate oscillations on surface water occurrence can be measured and that evidence can be gathered to show how surface water is altered by human activities. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modelling of surface forcing, provide evidence of state and change in wetland ecotones (the transition areas between biomes), and inform water-management decision-making. Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows an inlet in the south of the Bird’s Head Peninsula in West Papua, Indonesia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Dark blue colours are areas of permanent water and the pink colours show areas of where water occurs less often. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 Explore further The team reports that their mapping system also offers statistics such as the total amount of various types of water surface area across the globe, or parts of it, which can be used to identify trends such as decreasing water availability in areas where humans are pulling more water out of a system than nature can replace. It can also highlight potential trouble spots by noting, for example, certain details such as the fact that North America holds approximately 52 percent of all global surface water while hosting just five percent of the population. In order to better manage water resources, scientists need to gain a historical perspective on the water systems that cover the planet—from huge lakes to tiny streams. But up till now, there were no available high-resolution maps that show not only where such water systems currently exist but how they have changed in the recent past. To rectify that situation, the researchers collected satellite image data taken every month during the years 1984 to 2015—3,066,102 images in all. They pulled that data into an expert computer system that was tied to the Google Earth Engine. After configuring the system, the team produced a series of high-resolution (to 30 meters) maps. Users of the system can begin with a general overview of an area and then zoom in to study the finer details of a given water system—all while noting changes that have occurred over the recent past.The researchers report that they were able to see some startling changes, such as many water systems completely disappearing from areas in the Middle East. They were also able to pick out new water systems such as places where flooding had changed the course of a river or where dams had been built. The maps also revealed some of the changes that have already been wrought due to climate change—the expansion of lakes in the Tibetan Plateau, for example, that has come about due to increased snow melting on nearby mountains. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre and Google Switzerland has combined historical data with modern mapping engines to produce high-resolution maps of the world’s surface water (which excludes oceans). In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they created the new maps and offer some examples of clear changes to surface water over the past several decades. Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows the upper stretches of the Yenisei River (Река Енисей) in Russia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Dark blue colours are areas of permanent water and the pink colours show areas of where water occurs less often. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows Lake Gairdner National Park in Southern Australia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 Citation: Mapping system shows dramatic changes in surface water over past 32 years (2016, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-12-surface-years.htmlcenter_img New look at how water surface area has changed over the past 30 years Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows Lake Gairdner National Park in Southern Australia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows Poyang Lake in Jiangxi Province, China and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Dark blue colours are areas of permanent water and the pink colours show areas of where water occurs less often. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 Journal information: Nature © 2016 Phys.org Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows an inlet in the south of the Bird’s Head Peninsula in West Papua, Indonesia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Dark blue colours are areas of permanent water and the pink colours show areas of where water occurs less often. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016 Map of the distribution and change in surface water over 32 years from over 3 million Landsat satellite images. This map shows the River Ob (Река Обь) in western Siberia, Russia and captures the spatial and temporal patterns in surface water. Dark blue colours are areas of permanent water and the lighter blue colours are areas of seasonal water. Green colours represent new areas of seasonal water and pink colours represent areas of lost seasonal water. Credit: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, 2016last_img read more

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First flashes of light observed from individual graphene nanoribbons

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nano Letters More information: Michael C. Chong et al. “Bright Electroluminescence from Single Graphene Nanoribbon Junctions.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03797 Explore further The researchers, led by Deborah Prezzi at the CNR-Nanoscience Institute in Modena, Italy, and Guillaume Schull at the University of Strasbourg in France, have published a paper on their observations of the first electroluminescence from individual graphene nanoribbons in a recent issue of Nano Letters.”Generally, molecular-scale devices are interesting fundamental systems, but are rather unstable and produce limited amount of signal,” Schull told Phys.org. “In our article, we prove that individual graphene nanoribbons may be used as intense, stable and controllable light sources. These are decisive steps towards real-world optoelectronic applications with nanoscale organic systems.”Although graphene’s excellent electronic properties have been investigated extensively, much less is known about its optical properties. One of the drawbacks of using graphene as a light-emitting device is that graphene sheets do not have an optical band gap. However, recent studies have shown that, when cut into thin ribbons just a few atoms wide, graphene obtains a sizable optical band gap, opening up the possibility of light emission.Experimentally, there have been only a few demonstrations of light emission from graphene nanoribbons, and these have been limited to ensembles of nanoribbons and revealed only weak light emission. So the results of the new study, which show a much brighter light emitted by individual graphene nanoribbons compared to ensembles, hint at the exciting untapped potential of graphene’s optical properties. As the researchers explain in the new study, they used a novel configuration method in which an individual graphene nanoribbon bridges two metallic electrodes, for the first time forming an electronic circuit. Using a microscope tip, the researchers partially lifted the nanoribbon so that it lay partly on the substrate and partly suspended. This configuration reduces the coupling between the nanoribbon and the electrodes that would otherwise quench the light emission. Tests showed that the individual graphene nanoribbons exhibit an intense optical emission of up to 10 million photons per second, which is 100 times more intense than the emission measured for previous single-molecular optoelectronic devices, and comparable to that measured for bright light-emitting devices made of carbon nanotubes.In addition, the researchers found that the energy shift of the main peak changes as a function of the voltage, which provides a way to tune the color of the light. These observations also offer insight into the underlying mechanisms of the light emission from individual graphene nanoribbons, which the researchers plan to further investigate in the future.”We likely will explore the influence of the width of the graphene nanoribbons on the color of the emitted light, as the width is expected to control the size of the gap,” Schull said. “The impact of defects should also be explored. Eventually, one should propose methods to integrate our graphene nanoribbons devices in larger circuitry.” A graphene nanoribbon is partially suspended by a microscope tip, resulting in bright light emission. Credit: Chong et al. ©2017 American Chemical Societycenter_img Chemists synthesize narrow ribbons of graphene using only light and heat For the first time, researchers have experimentally observed light emission from individual graphene nanoribbons. They demonstrated that 7-atom-wide nanoribbons emit light at a high intensity that is comparable to bright light-emitting devices made from carbon nanotubes, and that the color can be tuned by adjusting the voltage. The findings may one day lead to the development of bright graphene-based light sources. Citation: First flashes of light observed from individual graphene nanoribbons (2018, January 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-individual-graphene-nanoribbons.html © 2018 Phys.orglast_img read more

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Money matters and artistic concerns

first_imgThe basic concept was to engage and entertain day to day basic human needs to project the upcoming Budget 2015.The material which has been used includes telephonic wires, cylinder, film roll, CPU, monitor,  etc. The budget is scheduled to be announced on February 28 by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.On congratulating students, RC Dalal, Executive Director of Fashion Technology said, “As the date of Budget comes around, our expectations arose and our students have perfectly shown this through the use of materials which we all use in our day to day basic needs.” A team of eight students prepared the whole installation which was headed by Kappil Kishor, Senior Faculty Member of JD Institute of fashion Technology. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The institute has been a distinctively eminent name in the design fraternity of India for two and a half decades now. Founded in 1988, the institute is more often than ever, looked upon as a nationwide cornerstone for all the fervent aspirants who endeavor to make a lucrative career in the disciplines of either fashion, interiors or jewellery.The institute focuses on creating the designers of tomorrow.  The institute is committed to anticipating and fulfilling the ever-changing requirements of the design industry by producing world-class designers. JD provides the perfect setting for aspirants to become professionally competent, confident and translating talent into a rewarding career. This provides young JEDIIANS an optimum exposure to the real world of fashion by taking assignments with choicest of brands, participating in selected shows, exhibitions and competitions, while pursuing their education.last_img read more

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Student unrest has led to vacant seats in JU Partha

first_imgKolkata: State Education minister Partha Chatterjee on Tuesday attributed the vacant seats of Jadavpur University to the recent student unrest in the campus. “23 percent of the seats of Jadavpur University are vacant because of student unrest,” Chatterjee said during a discussion at the state Assembly, while tabling five Bills, including setting up of four new universities and renaming one.It may be mentioned that the admission process has come to an end at JU and still, 70 seats in engineering in the varsity are lying vacant. Chatterjee’s remarks came after CPI-M MLA Tanmoy Bhattacharya alleged that there is poor infrastructure and dearth of faculties in the newly set up universities across the state. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”Your government (erstwhile Left Front) had not set up such a huge number of universities during your tenure and so your MLAs are jealous of the our government’s success. Academicians from other states are coming to teach in the colleges and universities of Bengal,” Chatterjee retorted.It may be mentioned that the Education minister was referring to the student movement in the varsity against the university’s decision to scrap admission test for six Humanities subjects in the undergraduate level. The university has subsequently yielded to the pressure from students and brought back admission tests. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe minister said that apart from a huge rise in budgetary allocation in the education sector, the enrollment has been raised from 12.5 lakh in 2011 to 18.5 lakh, due to the various student-centric schemes and scholarships.The Murshidabad University Bill, The Alipurduar University Bill, The Greenfield University Bill and The Dakshin Dinajpur University Bill were passed in the state Assembly.”The universities will help in bringing the economically backward classes under the ambit of higher education. All colleges of the concerned districts will be affiliated under the respective new universities,” Chatterjee said.The Purba Medinipur University (Amendment) Bill was also passed. The university has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi University, to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.last_img read more

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Indian Army joins PLAs 91st Foundation Day celebration

first_imgDarjeeling: The scene was quite different at Nathula on Wednesday.There was no locking of eyeballs nor a standoff. Instead it was bhangra at 1,426 ft as the Indian Army joined the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to commemorate the 91st Foundation Day of the PLA at Nathula.To mark the occasion, a Special Border meeting between India and China was held at Nathula, the Indo-China border, 56 km away from Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim.On receiving an invitation from the PLA, an Indian Army delegation comprising officers and soldiers took part in the celebrations at Nathula on Wednesday. The PLA troops interacted with the Indian delegation and presented a cultural programme. As a goodwill gesture, the Indian side reciprocated with traditional songs and dances. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”Such interactions between both armies have resulted in promoting mutual understanding and contributed towards achieving common goals of peace and tranquility along the borders,” stated an Army release.Incidentally in the monsoons of 2017, the Chinese and Indian troops had locked eye balls during a 73-day standoff in the strategically located Doklam Plateau, a tri-junction of India-China-Bhutan. Doklam is still seenas a touchy issue.In July 2018, a high-level PLA delegation led by Lt. Gen. Liu Xiaowu, Deputy Commander of the Western Theater Command had visited India including Delhi, Kolkata and the 33 Corps Headquarters at Sukna near Siliguri and held talks with their Indian counterparts.last_img read more

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Eating cheese may lower high blood pressure

first_imgConsuming sodium in the form of a dairy product, such as cheese, may protect against some of sodium’s effects on the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, researchers say.According to researchers, the protection comes from antioxidant properties of dairy proteins in cheese. The results suggest that when sodium is consumed in cheese it does not have the negative vascular effects that researchers observed with sodium from non-dairy sources. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf“We found that when participants ate a lot of sodium in cheese, they had better blood vessel function – more blood flow – compared to when they ate an equal amount of sodium from non-dairy sources – in this case, pretzels and soy cheese,” said Anna Stanhewicz, post-doctoral fellow at the Pennsylvania State University. “The novel finding may have implications for dietary recommendations. Newer dietary recommendations suggest limiting sodium, but our data suggest that eating sodium in the form of a dairy product, such as cheese, may be protective,” added Lacy Alexander, Associate Professor at the Pennsylvania State University.  Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveFor the study, the researchers fed participants dairy cheese, pretzels or soy cheese on five separate occasions, three days apart.  They then compared the effects of each food on the cardiovascular system using a laser-Doppler, which shines a weak laser light onto the skin. The study revealed soy served as an additional control to match the fat, salt and protein content from a dietary source that is not dairy-based. Participants who had more nitric oxide-moderated dilation after eating dairy cheese.last_img read more

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Skincare tips for women above 40

first_imgAfter 40, it is very important for a woman to choose the right skin care regime and make-up. Always hydrate your skin before applying the foundation and opt for peach or pink blush, says experts. Make-up artists Bhumika Bahri and Niti Luthra have listed down some techniques for women above the age of 40.Skincare as an investment: Investing in good skin care routine is the first step towards enhancing your skin. As we touch 40 our skin becomes dry and wrinkles start to appear. A good moisturizer and anti-aging serum will revive your skin. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfPrep and prime: The skin should be prepped properly for an even base. Primer plays an important role for a lesser base. Use concealer and contouring for a defined base.Balanced skin tone: Foundation with hydrating formulas work best after 40 as the skin becomes thin and makes the complexion dull. Hydrating foundation brings back the colour of the skin. Liquid formulas work best as it will not settle in the fine lines. Warm colours and yellow undertones balances the skin tone. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsivePeach or pink blush: Women above 40 years of age are advised to use peach and pink blush to add colour to their skin. It will add natural healthy glow to the cheekbones.Enhance your eyes: Eye shadows should be of warm tones. Using matte browns or neutral toned eye shadows would define the eyes. Use kohl or gel eyeliner along with mascara to give a softer look.Fuller lips: As we age our lips become thin and dry. Using lip liner would give fuller lip effect. Matte lipsticks with a dab of gloss in the center will give plumpness to the lips. Light and bright shades should be used as per the skin tone.last_img read more

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Shifting focus towards individual wellness this yoga day

first_imgThe Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi, one of the most distinguished addresses in the Capital celebrated International Day of Yoga with patrons and hotel associates as a part of its endeavour to encourage healthy and responsible living.On the occasion, the hotel undertook various initiatives to bring focus on the ancient Indian tradition of Yoga and to encourage people to take up the discipline that ultimately leads to harmony and peace, both, within and outside oneself. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAn hour-long yoga session for in-house guests was conducted at Longchamp, a stunning rooftop at the Hotel. The sessions for guests as well as the associates were led by Harjas Kaur, a certified hatha yoga teacher who has been practicing and teaching for the past 7 years. Post the session, guests savoured refreshing and healthy beverages prepared using fresh ingredients of the season such as banana and chia seed smoothie, lemon grass and grapefruit water, tender coconut shikanji complemented with some nourishing options like boiled egg with cous cous multigrain buns, Israeli cucumber with mint rye bread, granola bars, whole fruits, and amla candies. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveTo mark the occasion, the hotel also designed special wristbands from recycled material that were placed in-room as a turndown offering for the guests. The Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi endeavors to contribute meaningfully to conservation and environmental protection through initiatives such as this.Speaking on the occasion, Satyajeet Krishnan, Area Director – North and General Manager, The Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi, said, “In recent times, the ancient Indian practice of Yoga has gained international recognition. It gives us great pleasure to encourage the discipline amongst our guests as well as our own associates. Our chefs have always encouraged healthy eating as a way to aid our evolving lifestyle and this is one more occasion where we bring focus on maintaining individual wellness.”last_img read more

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Learning job skills

first_imgDeveloping a proactive system to identify prospective needs and prepare graduates for an uncertain future is a major challenge that educational institutions must face by developing linkages with the labor market and tailoring programmes to match their demands. COL’s (Commonwealth of Learning) President and CEO, Professor Asha Kanwar spoke about these challenges and other emerging trends in her keynote speech at the Asian Association of Open Universities (AAOU) 32nd annual conference in Vietnam recently. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIn the presentation titled ‘Human Resource Development and Lifelong Learning for Open Universities’, Professor Kanwar encouraged open universities to strengthen their outreach to wider constituencies, including the unreached, and integrate employability by responding to market needs. She called for more investments in innovative learning and the re-imagining of policies and practices to suit lifelong learners at different stages of their lives. To prepare learners for employment and entrepreneurship, Professor Kanwar proposed the integration of three essential illiteracy in schools’ curricular – human, data and technological. Human literacy will help learners make ethical choices to equip them for social engagement through effective communication. Data literacy, which is essential in a world driven by technology, will enable learners to find meaning in the flood of existing information. Lastly, technological literacy will help learners to deploy software and hardware in order to maximize their powers to achieve and create. Founded in 1987, the AAOU is a non-profit organisation of higher learning institutions concerned with open and distance education in Asia.last_img read more

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Govt bats for energyefficient water supply across Bengal

first_imgKolkata: State Urban Development and Municipal Affairs minister Firhad Hakim inaugurated the Municipal Energy Efficiency Programme (MEEP) on Friday, with the aim of enabling energy-efficient water supply across the state.Speaking on the occasion, Hakim said: “The Bengal government, through its initiatives, has been at the forefront of enabling energy efficiency in the state. Its conservation initiatives have been cost effective and transparent, narrowing the gap between power demand and supply in the state. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataEnergy Efficiency in municipal water supply systems will play a huge role in our water conservation efforts and this programme is a step in the right direction.” “We are committed towards creating stable, sustainable and transparent public utility systems in the state. I urge all municipalities/corporations to provide their active support in making our water management system reliable, energy efficient and one of the best in the country,” added Hakim. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThe department of Urban Development and Municipal Affairs, in partnership with Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture of CPSUs, is implementing the programme across the state. As of today, 39 urban local bodies (ULBs) have joined this programme and 1,060 water pumps are currently being replaced with energy efficient variants. Some ULBs are further expected to join shortly. The programme will lead to energy savings of 33.22 million units and reduction in GHG emissions by 27,245 tonnes of CO2 annually, resulting in monetary savings of Rs 153.65 crore during the project period of 7 years. Apart from Hakim, the Principal Secretary of the Urban Development and Municipal Affairs department Subrata Gupta and Director (Commercial), EESL S Gopal were also present at the programme.last_img read more

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No fresh rainfall in north Bengal people return to homes

first_imgJalpaiguri: The flood-like situation improved in north Bengal districts on Monday with no fresh rainfall reported in the past 24 hours, officials said. People who had sought shelter in higher grounds in the worst-affected Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar districts are returning to their residences, they said. Water levels receded in most rivers that were flowing above the danger mark on Sunday, including Teesta, Torsa, Kaljani, Sankosh, Raidak, Korola, Shil and Ghish, the officials said. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata The Met department has forecast isolated heavy rain in Alipurduar and Coochbehar districts till Wednesday and light to moderate rainfall in Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur and Malda districts till July 20. All the districts of north Bengal have been receiving heavy downpour over the past few days. One person had died on Sunday after slipping into an overflowing drain in Shanupara area of Jalpaiguri district. Meanwhile, workers of the closed Madhu tea estate in Alipurduar district staged a protest, demanding a check dam on Kalijhora river to prevent repeated inundation of the tea garden.last_img read more

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Want super performance in bed Practice yoga

first_imgMore and more people are uncovering the benefits of practicing yoga, but little do they know that yoga can bring energy to the bedroom as well. Experts say that yoga can improve your sex life if it is done under proper guidance. Stress plays a major role in your sex life. Increase in stress levels can have negative effects on the body, in turn, reducing sexual desire. Practicing yoga makes ones mind tranquil that makes the process of cerebral tissue oxygenation occur in deepest of human tissues that send micro-nutrients and blood supply to the tiniest parts of our brain and the genitalia. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Daily stress, smoking, alcohol and excess sugar intake – all hamper sexual performance in both men and women to a great extent. Yoga calms the mind and helps increase blood flow to the private parts. They advise two yoga postures to his patients – Havasana (corpse) and Vajrasana (kneeling). While Shavasana leaves you in a state of rejuvenation, reducing blood pressure, anxiety and insomnia, Vajrasana makes the body exceptionally strong and healthy. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveVajrasana also helps in digestion which is key to good health and increases the flow of blood to the whole body. According to yoga experts yoga can improve sexual functions and your interpersonal relations as a whole. “Yogic practices help in reducing stress and anxiety, which are wearing you down mentally. It helps to reduce fatigue and improving muscle strength. Yogasanas help in increasing the pelvic and back muscle strength as well.” “Yoga teaches you to have a sound body and mind, which has a positive effect on all your functions including sexual functions,” experts added. Yoga poses which are helpful includes Urdhva Mukha Svanasana, Setu Bandhasana, Kandharasna, Balasana, to name a few. Yoga boosts your stamina, increases your flexibility. So we can say that the connection between yoga and better sex life is promising. As it calms the mind, yoga improves the dialogue between the two individuals that leads to intimacy in the bedroom, and beyond.So, when you count various health benefits of practicing yoga, remember that doing yoga could be your ticket to a super performance in bed.last_img read more

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Clean Up with Clean Tech

first_imgMay 21, 2010 Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals 6 min read Register Now » If clean technology is any indicator, things are definitely looking up. According to a recent report by the Cleantech Group and Deloitte, clean technology venture investments in North America, Europe, China and India totaled $1.9 billion in the first quarter of 2010, up 83 percent from a year ago and 29 percent from the fourth quarter of 2009. That represents the strongest start to a year ever recorded by the Cleantech Group.In part, this might be due to the expanding range of clean technologies. Once comprising primarily renewable energies, clean tech now encompasses a number of other areas, including: air, water and waste, energy efficiency, green building, smart power and transportation. This expansion has led to opportunities for many entrepreneurs, including Samantha Simonnet, who recently started the Cleantech Management and Organization Network, an executive search firm that specializes in clean technology and alternative energy.Simonnet first became involved in clean tech in 2007, while working for an executive search firm based in Singapore. An avid diver, she developed an awareness of environmental issues as a result of her passion for the ocean. “My interest initially was in marine conservation–how climate change is affecting the quality of coral, sustainable fisheries and that type of thing. Then we started seeing companies in Europe looking to expand into Asia and looking for executives in that area; so I volunteered [to lead that search], specifically in renewable energy.”When she came to the United States, Simonnet found a dearth of clean-technology development and decided to become actively involved with organizations that promoted education and funding for clean-tech entrepreneurs. Currently, she serves as the Orange County, Calif., chair for the Clean Tech Open, an organization dedicated to finding, funding and fostering entrepreneurial solutions to energy, environmental and economic challenges.Since 2006, the Clean Tech Open has organized a national competition for “ecopreneurs” with early-stage clean technology. Registration for this year’s competition ends May 22. Regional finalists will receive $30,000 in cash and services, and the national winner will receive a $250,000 prize package. In addition, all semifinalists are eligible to participate in an extensive training program that includes seminars, business clinics and an accelerated course in business planning and pitching to investors.In addition to her work with the Clean Tech Open, Simonnet also serves as an outreach committee member for Clean Tech OC, a trade association that promotes economic growth in the Orange County, Calif., clean-tech industry. Long associated with the high-tech and biotech industries–Southern California has been known as the “Tech Coast” for years–Simonnet hopes to see that industry base expand to include clean technologies.”San Diego is pretty well-positioned for anything in biofuel because of [its] industry base. Orange County is well-positioned for anything involving manufacturing or process manufacturing–transportation and energy storage are two areas that might work. Los Angeles could be anything–manufacturing, solar, energy storage–really, anything. Which ones are going to prevail? That’s difficult to predict,” Simonnet says. “If we don’t make a leap forward in energy storage, then wind and solar aren’t going to advance as quickly as we would like. Transportation also has the issue with energy storage. Storage, basically, is the platform for everything else at this stage.”Simonnet credits the recent economic downturn for culling some of the less-viable technologies. “In 2008 there were too many companies jumping into too many industries, and they just weren’t viable. They didn’t really evaluate the technology. Now investors really understand what it takes to do this; they have scientists and other experts on their boards. They aren’t just dumping money into it. In the end the recession will have streamlined some technologies, and only the ones that will really make a difference will be selected.” Still, she says, there are significant obstacles to overcome. “Only people who are really passionate about the area will stay. It’s going to take time before it works, but there are people coming out with great technologies that are going to make a difference.”Clean Tech TipsIf you really want to get involved in clean tech, take note of these three tips:Take stock of your core competencies. “You’re not going to invent yourself with a scientific or engineering background overnight,” Simonnet says. “But clean tech still needs core competencies in business development, marketing and finance. For example, I met a lady in San Diego who was from a traditional finance background. She became the COO/CFO of a solar startup.”Attend classes and get certification. Several organizations offer professional training and certification. For example, The U.S. Green Building Council offers LEED certification education resources, and the Residential Energy Services Network offers information and standards for becoming a home energy rating systems rater or a home energy survey professional. In addition, many colleges and universities offer sustainability certification courses and even “Green MBAs.” Simonnet offers an online “Future of Energy” class through the University of California, Irvine, Extension program.Get involved in trade associations in your area and volunteer your time. “You’ll meet others who have core competencies that complement yours, and maybe something will happen,” Simonnet says. “You get access to professionals at solid companies and, if a position opens, why would they go look for someone else if you’re right in front of them? It’s really a step away from networking; it’s professional activities within networking. That’s what works nowadays. They need to trust you and know who you are and then they’ll hire you, especially in a job-constrained market.”Kimberly B. Keilbach is the author of Global Warming I$ Good for Business, winner of the 2009 National Indie Excellence Award. Kimberly has more than 20 years’ experience writing for and about entrepreneurial and high-tech companies. She also has a studied interest in natural ecosystems, which has had a strong influence on her own business and life practices. Her ability to examine environmental issues from a business perspective has allowed her to demonstrate how today’s most sustainable businesses can make a profit while benefiting the environment and adding value to their communities. Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.last_img read more

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5 Situations When Building an App Is Just a Dead End

first_img Not everyone needs to build an app. Yes, it’s true even in the year 2016 when apps are part of our everyday lives. You don’t want to invest your time or money if you know you’re not going to see any returns.And how do you know whether the you’re going to see returns or not? There are a few ways to tell. If any or all of the following five conditions hold true in your case, you absolutely shouldn’t invest in building a mobile app at this stage.Try and turn these around and you’re then set to start your journey as an appreneur.Let’s take a look at the five conditions when you shouldn’t waste your time or your money in building an app.1. When you can’t track ROI.This one’s true mostly for existing businesses that are looking at building a mobile app as an extension or their existing product or service offering. Unless you have a strong, measurable ROI that you can track from building a mobile app, don’t.Where it doesn’t make sense is when you’re building an app to improve a certain process that isn’t directly linked to a revenue generating activity internally in your company.Related: Dream On: Here Are the Real Reasons You Should Build an AppOr in the context of a customer facing solution, it wouldn’t make sense when you feel you can increase the engagement of your customer through a mobile app. The truth is, if you can’t increase the engagement of your customer with your existing product, chances are, there’s something wrong with the core product or offering itself. Don’t invest your money in building an app just yet.2. When you don’t have a budget.Don’t build an app if you don’t have sufficient budget. This one’s relevant for all non-technical founders who don’t have a technical co-founder to help build the initial version(s).Don’t compromise on the quality of the app because you have limited funds just so you can launch something in the market. If the experience is poor or your app is buggy or it doesn’t match up to current usability or design standards, chances are it would be a total waste of money. Users aren’t forgiving. And when it comes to the mobile app ecosystem, even more so owing to the shorter attention spans. Build something you will be proud of, that users would be delighted by — not because you want to be an appreneur.3. When the frequency of use is limited.Apps that do well are those that have a frequent touch point with their customers. If your mobile app is built to be used once a month, a quarter or a year, users are going to forget that it exists on their phone.Related: 10 Reasons Not to Build a Mobile AppEither the app has to have a use case that compels the user to access it frequently — at least once every week, or there’s an event that occurs frequently that compels them to access the app frequently. In both of these cases, you’ve got an app that will stay at the top of the mind for the customer.4. When you’ve not nailed a niche.In his latest book, “From Impossible to Inevitable,” Aaron Ross and Jason Lemkin write, “You can be a Fortune 100 company, or the greatest expert at organization design, or have a killer SaaS (software as a service) subscription model app for managing employees. But, if you can’t predictably go out and generate leads and opportunities where you’re needed, win them, and do it profitably, you’re gonna struggle.”If you haven’t nailed your niche, your target audience, you’ll end up spending tons or money in marketing and not getting any returns and relevant feedback about your product.Have your target audience defined down to absolute specific when you’re launching your first version of the product — first-year undergrad Harvard medical school female student who owns an iPad and drives their own car is nailing a niche as compared to “female college student.”5. When you don’t have a monetization model.Less than 1 percent of apps on the app store make any money. Is building a mobile app a hobby or do you want to build a business and generate wealth off it?Every good business model has a defined plan to monetize the product based on the value you’d provide to the customer. Besides, it would also motivate you to delight your customer to get them to pay and have a great experience while using the app.Related: 4 Reasons Your Startup Needs to Launch a Mobile App — NowWhile you may not actually monetize from day-one through your app, but at least have a monetization strategy or business model in mind before building the product. August 31, 2016 5 min read Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Register Now »last_img read more

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Are You Doing Enough to Protect and Monetize Your Intellectual Property

first_img Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. 7 min read Your tech-enabled business has valuable technology and intellectual property (IP) as part of your processes and the service, capabilities and products you provide.This IP in what you and your contractors have created typically takes the form of software and computer code, and also may contain trade secrets and possibly patentable subject matter or inventions. Many companies underestimate the tremendous value their IP represents to their monetization strategy, as well as to a potential acquirer or growth capital investor.Related: 15 Useful Tech Tools for Your BusinessWhat I have learned from many years of working with tech-enabled growth companies; on both sides of mergers and acquisitions; and angel, private equity and venture capital investments, is that accretion of IP value is the key element to supporting overall enterprise value — representing scalability in phases of rapid growth and supporting attractive multiples during the fundraising and exit phases.But, have you properly protected your IP from “leakage,” and have you created monetization strategies that ensure customers pay for the parts of your IP they use? By being vigilant in incorporating proven best practices for key IP protection and monetization strategies, you can better ensure your business trajectory has favorable investment and exit outcomes.1. Understand and prevent leakage.There is a push/pull between the IP developers who want everyone to use their IP, and the business side who want to maximize user payments.Leakage occurs when a company’s poor policies for creation, access or usage of the IP technology allow others to unfairly or wrongfully use, benefit from or commercialize your IP or portions of the IP. The lack of technology and legal restrictions on use results in the “leak” to other organizations, past employees and contractors, and possibly competitors.Expert tips: Licenses of your IP must establish tiered boundaries on use, prohibitions and service/license fees.Ensure contractors and employees are contractually bound by work made-for-hire and assignment of invention provisions in favor of your company.Related: 25 Creative Ways to Promote Your App For Free2. Own your derivatives and derivative works.Many companies are not able to ascertain who owns the derivative work created with their IP technology. Simply put, ownership of derivative works is critical.If your customer agreement allows them to own enhancements to software or services of the IT technology platform you created, you may have established a roadblock to your growth and technology roadmap. This quickly becomes murky in customer contract negotiations.Expert tip: When your large customer’s procurement department says it must own all the technology created in your relationship, as well as enhancements to and development of that technology, it is time to call a well-seasoned licensing attorney to help you craft and negotiate customer license agreements and provisions that balance customer needs against possible leakage of your IP and your IP derivative works.3. Get copyright protection.Your IP technology in the form of critical software and systems may be a copyrightable work that garners the protection of the copyright laws.Expert tips:Timely and professional preparation and filing of a copyright registration on every significant version of that software will lock in statutory copyright remedies for your company.Mark in the platform, in the code of the platform and on the screen displays a form of a copyright notice including “©Year Company Name.”For major versions of your technology, get a non-infringement opinion from an experienced patent attorney to help avoid any liability for intentional infringement (including treble damages) if another company asserts pre-existing patent rights against you.4. Take confidentiality very seriously and limit access to your IP.Access to valuable technology or processes requires protections and limitations. Ensure confidentiality agreements are put in place to prohibit unauthorized further use of this information by the viewer and reverse engineering. Employee and contractor use should be only for benefit of your company.Your IP technology users must understand that what they are accessing is protected by law, may be confidential and that access and use is restricted.Expert tips: Mark all confidential materials with a “Confidential and Proprietary” stamp for hard copies and a watermark for “soft” copies. This applies not only to the technology itself, but also to strategic plans and product roadmaps around the technology.Create multiple levels of password-protected access based on the level of authorized viewership and use. Some companies’ “crown jewels” are accessible on the network by every employee!Related: The 25 Best U.S. Cities for Tech Startups5. Be mindful of copy left agreements in your IP strategy.Many tech-enabled companies use open source software for customer-facing technologies as well as behind-the-scenes software. You can lose a (potential) customer by not understanding how, where and what open source code is used in your IP.Make sure your software subject to copyleft licenses are finite and bounded, so the company can demonstrate where free copyleft open source code versus software IP begins and ends.Expert tip: Be ready to show how you have isolated the copyleft open source code so that it does not suck your code base into a derivative work that requires you share it with the entire world.For some of our clients, we have developed “open source code use protocols,” which can be an effective management tool.6. Structure scalability and licensing protocols for your IP.A key element to fostering scale and growth is to ensure that, when you are deploying technology for use by others, you are not giving away more than is required, but that you are giving enough that allows customers to buy more. Deliver access for only the portions of the paid-for use of your technology needed now, and consider limited additional access/restrictions that allow the user to “grow” into additional use and payment opt-ins.You can limit usage in a wide variety of ways, including: number of users, scope of use, application, application type, business unit, transactions and even throughput (data rates of flow). As these scale, so should their payments to your business. Always position yourself to be able to say yes to additional and even enterprise-wide usage requests, and be firm in adding, “but there is an additional cost.”Expert tip: Sunset clauses and support post-sunset should be specifically detailed and outlined in your support agreements. You do not want your best people tied up supporting yesterday’s technologies (and yesterday’s revenue model) instead of innovating new growth and platforms.An ounce of strategic prevention is worth many pounds of cure.Any tech-enabled company that intends at some point in the future to take growth investment or sell the company, will undergo a tremendous level of due diligence around their IP strategy and protections.There will be literally teams of people — technology, legal and business experts ­– whose job it is to point out flaws of your technology and its protection. They are assessing investability, scalability and protectability, while relating these to monetary enterprise value and legal and business exposure you may be held responsible for post transaction — if the deal crosses the finish line.Each facet of the due diligence peels back another layer of the onion and raises further questions about risk. Your efforts now can solidify your future value proposition story for investment or exit and will be well worth it. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Register Now » September 6, 2017 Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box.last_img read more

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