Water status and thermal analysis of alginate beads used in cryopreservation of plant germplasm

first_imgEncapsulation and dehydration techniques using alginate beads are used increasingly for the pre-treatment of various plant materials for cryopreservation to improve survival post-cryogenic storage. This study reports the effects of the water content of beads (formed with 30% (w/v) alginic acid in liquid S-RIB), polymerisation time (in 100 mM calcium chloride solution), osmotic dehydration (in 0.75 M sucrose solution), and evaporative air desiccation on the thermal properties of alginate beads used in cryopreservation protocols. Experimental beads were assayed using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a cooling programme to -150degreesC, followed by re-warming. Resultant thermograms were evaluated with particular reference to the onset temperature and enthalpy of the melt endotherm from which the quantities of frozen and unfrozen water were calculated. Treatments were applied sequentially to samples of beads and their thermal features evaluated at each stage of the protocol. Using ‘standard’ beads (40-55 mg fresh weight), formed using plastic disposable pipettes, the degree of polymerisation (>10 min) proportionally reduced their dry weight and increased their water content. Thermal characteristics of the beads were unaffected by polymerisation times >10 min, but the maximum level (23%) of unfrozen (osmotically inactive) water was achieved after 15 min polymerisation. Osmotic dehydration using 0.75 M sucrose significantly lowered bead water content and mean dry weight approximately doubled with 20-24 h immersion time. Bead desiccation in still air reduced their water content by 83% of fresh weight, whilst dry weight remained constant. After 8 h desiccation in air between 27 and 37% of the water in the bead was osmotically inactive (unfrozen) in DSC scans. Desiccation >18 h reduced this fraction to zero. The melt onset temperature and the enthalpy of melting were directly related to bead water content. The unfrozen water fraction increased substantially with reduced water content of the beads (from 23 to 37% of total water content), concomitant with a reduction in the ratio of unfrozen to frozen water from 1:3 to 1:2. For successful vitrification and the production of a glass that did not destabilise on rewarming, a bead water content of ca. 26%, of fresh weight (0.4 g water g(-1) dry weight) was required, much of which was osmotically inactive water. These data are discussed in relation to optimal pre-treatments for alginate bead encapsulation techniques used in the cryopreservation of a range of plant germplasm. It is proposed that increased standardisation of alginate beads, in terms of volume, fresh weight, and water content, is required to reduce the variability in physical and thermal features, which in turn will improve survival of plant samples post-cryopreservation.last_img read more

Read More »

Oxygen three-isotope fractionation lines in terrestrial silicate minerals: an inter-laboratory comparison of hydrothermal quartz and eclogitic garnet

first_imgGeochemical—and perhaps biochemical—processes may yield tell-tale proxies in rocks and minerals on the Earth or other planetary bodies, in the form of distinctive slopes of linear fractionation arrays on the oxygen three-isotope plot. It is generally recognized that kinetic and equilibrium fractionation processes are described by different mass fractionation laws. We show that coupled laser fluorination, dual-inlet IRMS procedures for oxygen three-isotope analysis of silicates, at high precision, gave reproducible accuracy for the slope value as measured independently by two different laboratories, using replicates of the same silicate samples. As far as we are aware, this is the first such inter-laboratory comparison. Hydrothermal quartz (together with one chalk flint sample) with a range in δ18O of 31‰ gave respective slope λ values of 0.5240 ± 0.0010 and 0.5242 ± 0.0010, using Prism III and MAT 253 mass spectrometers, respectively, at the Open University (OU). Errors were computed from weighted linear regression and are reported at the 95% confidence level. The comparable result obtained at the Geophysical Laboratory (GL), Carnegie Institution of Washington, was 0.5240 ± 0.0015. A MAT 252 mass spectrometer was used for the latter measurements and the oxygen extraction and purification procedures differed in detail from those used at the OU. In contrast, slopes measured for replicates of seven garnet samples, metamorphosed under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions, and spanning 20‰ in δ18O, gave 0.5262 ± 0.0008 at OU (Prism III analyses) and 0.5266 ± 0.0012 at GL.last_img read more

Read More »

Freshers’ week Freudian sleep

first_imgA statement from the police claimed that when officers reached him, the fresher was “initially arrested while the property was searched for any damage or theft, he was then de-arrested”. The episode ended amiably with the first year being returned to his college by the police. He said that he returned to his bed safe and sound and no subsequent action occured regarding the incident. Students who have spoken to Cherwell about the event have had mixed reactions. Tom Stafford, a fresher from St Anne’s College, commented, “It makes me feel bad by comparison. We obviously need to be hitting it harder.” However, St Anne’s Entz rep Matthew Morrow, said, “I’m a-freud this guy only has himself to blame. All I can say is it must have been one hell of a poo.” One American visiting student and self-proclaimed amateur bartender said to Cherwell upon hearing the story, “There are no words to express my displeasure at the concept of the guy’s inability to get down.” He added, “You’d think an establishment which mixes natural frequenting of the bathroom with alcoholic drinks would ensure the toilets were checked.” Thankfully, while the fresher reported that he thought during the crisis, “this is the worst thing that could possibly happen”, he claimed to have recovered from the shock come the following morning and now views the incident as an amusing twist in his week. He added, “Looking back on it, I thought the story was a good one. I told my friends the next day. I’ve had a lot of people asking me if it’s true.” Nor was the agreeability of his freshers’ week as a whole compromised by what has been described as his ‘Freud’s Fiasco’. “The night was funny even before I passed out in the loo,” he confirmed. The owner of Freud’s was unavailable for comment. A fresher from Exeter College was locked inside the Freud Café last Wednesday night after a drunken trip to the restrooms led to a five hour long sleep on a toilet seat. The disorientated student awoke at 4:30am to find himself locked inside the bar, unbeknownst to his colleagues and the bar’s staff.The event took place at the Exeter Freshers’ Ball. The fresher, who wished to remain anonymous, told Cherwell, “We bought drinks from the shop and it kicked in pretty quickly. I was very drunk and feeling quite ill, and thought I needed to be sick.” However, a trip to the bathroom saw him pass out in one of the cubicles, where he remained until the early hours of the morning. Describing his awakening, he said, “I was very drunk at this stage. Everything was dark, and I set off the alarm when I entered the main room.” The situation merely worsened when he triggered the fire alarm while searching for the light switch in the darkness. He was also unable to find a way out, since, as he noted in a commendation of the security system at Freud’s that “everything was locked up very well.”A call about the fire alarm alerted the police to the events. A report from Thames Valley Police issued to Cherwell said, “Police attended and could not see any signs of a break in and so contacted the key holder who attended.” They entered the building only to discover the unfortunate fresher and mistake him for a burglar. According to the student, the misunderstanding saw the police order him to “get down on the ground”, but he “couldn’t hear because of the alarms.” Instead, he began to advance towards the officers, oblivious to their commands.In the confusion the intoxicated student may have come close to being tasered by a pair of officers who did not know his intentions; after a third officer indicated this to him he finally obeyed the order. The fresher said, “He handcuffed me and put me in the back of the police car. He asked, ‘Why didn’t you get down when we said to?’, and I explained.” He added, “I guess that was quite fortunate that I did eventually hear them.”last_img read more

Read More »

Bernard Purdie Performs With Adam Deitch, Eddie Roberts, Pete Shand, And More In Denver [Videos]

first_imgOn Saturday night, the legendary drummer Bernard “Pretty” Purdie took to Denver for an intimate performance at Ophelia’s Electric Soapbox. For the Bernard Purdie and Friends show, the drummer tapped The New Mastersounds’ guitarist Eddie Roberts and bassist Pete Shand, in addition to keys player Robert Walter of Greyboy Allstars and sax player Nick Gerlach. The show also saw sit-ins by Lettuce and Break Science’s own drummer Adam Deitch, making for a truly special night, and more or less serving as a passing-of-the-torch between the two generations of drumming royalty. You can check a handful of videos from last night’s show below, courtesy of Ashley Roberts.Eddie Roberts Honors Grant Green In Denver With Special “Green Is Beautiful” Run [Photos][Photo: Benny Tucker]“Ain’t No Woman Like the One I’ve Got” Adam Deitch and Bernard Purdie sharing a drum soloJam featuring Eddie Roberts’ sololast_img read more

Read More »

US employment costs rise modestly in fourth quarter

first_imgSILVER SPRING, Md. (AP) — Wages and benefits for U.S. workers rose in the last quarter of the year as employers sought to hold the line on pay gains as the pandemic continues to rankle the economy. U.S. workers’ total compensation rose 0.7% in the October-December quarter, an increase over the previous two quarters, the Labor Department said Friday. For the year, wages and benefits grew 2.5%. The Labor Department’s Employment Cost Index measures pay changes for workers that keep their jobs. The data isn’t affected by the mass layoffs in the spring. Even though the gains were modest, they still outpaced 2020 inflation of 1.4%.last_img read more

Read More »

Odds & Ends: Megan Hilty’s a Honeymooner & More

first_img Star Files Here’s a quick roundup of stories you may have missed today.Megan Hilty, Michael McGrath & More are HoneymoonersWe love the sound of this (and how much are we hoping that there’s an invite coming our way in the mail?). Broadway favorites Megan Hilty, Michael McGrath, Hank Azaria and Leslie Kritzer will headline an industry reading of The Honeymooners on November 7. Based on the classic TV series, the new musical comedy, which was at one point slated to run at San Diego’s Old Globe, will have music by Stephen Weiner, lyrics by Peter Mills and a book by Dusty Kay and Bill Nuss. The workshop will be directed by John Rando, with choreography by Joshua Bergasse. This is definitely one to watch…James Franco is Hopelessly Devoted to MusicalsWill James Franco return to Broadway in a musical? According to JustJared, the stage and screen star said about his recently released comedy series, Making a Scene With James Franco: “We did Grease at this little amusement park near Coney Island…it was making a musical and there’s nothing more fun than that.” We agree Mr. Franco—we’re fantasy casting you in about fifty different tuners right now.B’way Flea Market Hits New HighThe 28th Annual Broadway Flea Market & Grand Auction raised an all-time high of $713,986 for Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS on September 21. Lots on offer included hanging with If/Then’s Idina Menzel and The River’s Hugh Jackman backstage, as well as actually being on stage in shows like Beautiful, Kinky Boots, The Phantom of the Opera and Wicked. More than 60 actors donated their time to sign autographs and take photos—there’s nothing like it when the Broadway community comes together.Into the Woods’ Rob Marshall Already a 2015 Award WinnerChoreographer and director Rob Marshall is set to receive the New York Apple Award at the Casting Society of America 30th Annual Artois Awards. The bicoastal ceremonies will take place on January 22, 2015.  Before that, of course, is the December premiere of the Oscar and Tony nominee’s latest movie, Into the Woods, which as you might have guessed by now, we can’t wait to see! Broadway shows nominated for the event’s awards include A Gentleman’s Guide to Love and Murder, Beautiful, Hedwig, Les Miz and Violet in the musical category, along with Act One, Casa Valentina, Outside Mullingar and The Realistic Joneses in the comedy category and All the Way, Betrayal, Macbeth, Of Mice and Men and The Winslow Boy in the drama category. Congratulations to all! View Commentscenter_img Megan Hiltylast_img read more

Read More »

House panel passes CHOICE Act with Durbin repeal

first_img 11SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr The House Financial Services Committee on Thursday voted along party lines to pass the Financial CHOICE Act (H.R. 10). The bill, approved on a vote of 34-26, still contains the NAFCU-backed provision for repeal of the Durbin interchange amendment.“Passage of the Financial CHOICE Act is an important step toward creating a regulatory environment where the nation’s credit unions can thrive. NAFCU thanks committee Chairman Jeb Hensarling, R-Texas, for introducing this important legislation,” said NAFCU President and CEO Dan Berger. “NAFCU supports many provisions of this bill, but one of the most significant is the repeal of the failed Durbin interchange amendment. We urge lawmakers to see this bill through, including the repeal of this government interference that harms consumers.”“NAFCU will continue its work with members of Congress to create a better regulatory environment for the credit union industry,” Berger added.In addition to Durbin amendment repeal, the committee-approved CHOICE Act contains numerous other NAFCU-sought measures, including one requiring regulatory agencies to improve their cost-benefit analyses and better tailor regulations to the size of regulated institutions. It would also, as urged by NAFCU, preserve the NCUA Board’s current three-member structure and mandate agency budget transparency. continue reading »last_img read more

Read More »

Agency picks Atlantic Quay

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

Read More »

Drug Foundation’s ‘Taking Control’ Model For Legal Weed Is ‘Out Of Control’

first_imgThe Drug Foundation has recently released a model for regulation entitled “Taking control of cannabis – a model for responsible regulation“.If anything, the model is out of control. Here’s some key problems:1. It will be legal to grow cannabis for personal useThe Drug Foundation wants to allow ‘small-scale growers‘ to allow for ‘community development‘ (!!) and to ‘redress the harm caused by prohibition‘.  They also want to ‘allow people to grow plants at home as proposed, and share with friends.‘ Yeah – let’s get the whole neighbourhood high!The problem with private homes being used as ‘grows’ is that dope dealers will simply stay under the radar with multi-location grows, and children will be exposed to the industry – right in their backyard.Home grows are simply a form of black market. They avoid any regulation. Who is going to monitor what a local drug dealer is growing in their backyards?The Drug Foundation makes a shocking and insulting assertion about our Police, saying that ‘a key goal should be to prevent cannabis offences being used as ‘convenience charges’ to target vulnerable populations.’ Apparently the aim of the Police is simply to find any excuse they can to charge ‘vulnerable populations‘.2. No age restriction on useWhile the Drug Foundation agrees with a legal purchase age of 20, they ‘caution around setting a legal use age as this could result in further penalising vulnerable communities with negligible impact on use.’ They argue that teenagers can then take advantage of ‘allowing them access to products that carry health warnings and potency controls‘.Apparently, a 12, 13 or 14 year old (or even younger) using drugs is not the issue. It’s whether they have good product, and don’t get penalised.So in effect it will be totally legal for a 12 year old to be carrying and smoking / consuming cannabis – as long as they persuaded a 20 year old ‘big brother’ to buy it for them. They argue that it’s to help vulnerable communities, but increasing access will simply add to the vulnerability and harm.3. Online salesThe Drug Foundation wants to increase the availability of drugs by allowing ‘online sales through a single website‘ and to ‘ensure strict requirements for age checking at point of purchase and delivery.’ This is both flawed – and naive.Online age checking has proved generally to be a farce and very difficult to monitor. And once again, the cost of providing this level of regulation and enforcement will be very costly – yet they want the online sales to be ‘non-profit‘. But hang on – isn’t the taxes on cannabis going to pay for all the new schools, hospitals, roads, and every other great cause we can think of?They then argue that ‘it could be run similarly to TradeMe, with licensed retailers able to offer products in a controlled way‘. Apparently nobody is on TradeMe for the purposes of making a quick buck with dodgy products. They also argue that ‘small-scale growers who are currently operating illegally‘ (like the gangs and your local drug dealers standing outside schools) ‘to become part of the mainstream economy‘.4. SmokeFree – but a joint, edible or dab in the home is fineIn an incredible display of confused thinking, they want to ‘avoid the proliferation of other licensed premises such as cannabis cafés, as these may encourage and normalise cannabis use‘.Yet in the same policy, they want to ‘allow for the consumption of cannabis in homes‘. The reason? ‘Otherwise people will break the law and continue to be targeted‘.Imagine what example this sets to young people and children about drug use. And of course, as mentioned above, the whole neighbourhood can join in the party.5. ‘Gummy bear heaven’ – all the products that Big Marijuana wantsDespite correctly saying that ‘there are good public health arguments for keeping the range of products available in NZ to an absolute minimum so as not to encourage new cannabis users and increase overall demand‘, they recommend vaping (despite ALL the problems happening in the US at the moment with THC-vaping), high potency concentrates (because, apparently,  people want them) and edibles (‘proceed with caution‘).Dear Drug Foundation – the cannabis industry ‘don’t do caution’. They want consumers – young and addicted. Lifelong customers.And every other jurisdiction has been engulfed – either through the legal market (Colorado, California), or through the black market (Uruguay, Canada) – with edibles. The market share of bud has fallen and the market share of THC-infused edibles and THC concentrates continues to rise.Interestingly, they say that ‘concentrates should be stored out of sight behind the counter and labelled high risk and unsuitable for inexperienced users‘.But still legal, eh.6. Stoned drivers won’t affect our roads‘It is highly unlikely that legalisation of cannabis will cause a big upswing in fatal accidents on our roads.‘We’ll just leave these here… 7. Research that fits the narrativeMost people are concerned about the effect on young people with any legalisation of cannabis. So this graphic they use suggests that we have should have no concerns. The study – published in JAMA Pediatrics – purports to show the legalisation of marijuana leads to a reduction in teen use of the substance.Here’s the problem. This study, funded in part by the pro-drug legalisation Charles Koch Foundation, is flawed for several reasons:It is based on the CDC YRBS, which completely omits Oregon and Washington – two large legal states – in 2017It also excludes young people who are not in school, such as dropoutsAccording to the most comprehensive survey on drug use, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health — which includes all young people in households, not just those who gave permission to take a school survey — youth use of the drug is on the rise in legal states while declining in states that have not legalized the substanceThe study was partially funded by the Charles Koch Foundation, which is partially dedicated to legalizing marijuana (like Koch Industries)“To put it simply, this study is awash with problems,” said Dr. Kevin Sabet, founder of Smart Approaches to Marijuana (SAM) and a former senior drug policy advisor to the Obama Administration. “The data here runs counter to what we see from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health: youth use is on the rise in ‘legal’ states while declining elsewhere.”According to NSDUH data, the percentage of youth aged 12-17 using marijuana is declining faster in states where marijuana is not “legal,” and overall use is high in legal states while declining in non-legal states. Further, the percentage of youth in this age range using the drug in “legal” states was 7.7% versus 6.2% in non-legal states.And just to confirm how questionable this study was as stand-alone proof, even the CNN coverage of the report noted concerns:The paper had some limitations, including that only an association was found in the study — not a causal relationship — and more research is needed to determine why this association exists. “Because many recreational marijuana laws have been passed so recently, we do observe limited post-treatment data for some of these states,” Anderson said…The CNN report then went on to show how inconsistent it was with other researchFor instance, a 2018 report from the Colorado Division of Criminal Justice Office of Research and Statistics found that the proportion of high school students in the state who said they used marijuana ever in their lifetime or in the past 30 days remained statistically unchanged from 2005 to 2017. Meanwhile on the national front, the overall prevalence of marijuana-only use among youth in the United States since the early 1990s increased from 0.6% in 1991 to 6.3% in 2017, according to a study published in the American Journal of Public Health on Wednesday.SummaryNew Zealanders should be very concerned that a government-funded charity is pushing so strongly for legalisation of recreational cannabis. Their evidence simply doesn’t stack up. The policy recommendations are flawed and dangerous.last_img read more

Read More »

Malay LGU delays ‘trike’ phaseout due to ‘Ursula’

first_imgBautista earlierissued an executive order enjoining the Malay Transportation Office to enforcethe guidelines on e-trike modernization program on Nov. 11, 2019. Bautista said the shift from old tricycles to environment-friendly e-trikes will promote fuel efficiency and clean air. He said thousandsof residents and establishments were left without electricity due to Ursula’sonslaught. “Nahirapan ang ating mga electronictricycles (e-trikes) na maka-rechargedahil may mga lugar sa isla na wala pangkuryente,” said Bautista. Meanwhile, at least 40 mini-buses of Boracay Land Transport Multi-purpose Cooperative are on standby to augment e-trikes operating in the fame-island resort. (With a report from Akean Forum/PN) However, fewgroups appealed to Bautista and to the Sangguniang Bayan to defer themodernization program as this will result to massive displacement of motorcycledrivers. BORACAY – Typhoon Ursula’s extensivedamage has prompted the local government unit of Malay, Aklan to postpone theplanned phaseout ofgasoline-powered tricycles in this world-famous island. “Nag-allowed din tayo ng mga single motorcycles maka-biyahe. Kahit may problema tayo dahil sa Ursula, marami pa ring turista ang dumarating sa Boracay. Keeping thisn island a safe place to live is also our priority,” Bautista added. Electric passenger tricycle plies the street streets of Boracay in Malay, Aklan. The town’s local government unit has postponed the planned total phaseout of gasoline-powered tricycles in the world famous-island due to the extensive damage left by Typhoon Ursula. PHOTO FROM KATHLEEN URBI/YOUTUBE Malay mayor FrolibarBautista announced this move, saying the entire province is still reeling from the impact of the typhoon that wrought havocon Dec. 25 last year.  According toBautista, power restoration and rebuilding efforts are still underway in thebarangays of Manoc-Manoc, Balabag and Yapak. last_img read more

Read More »